Coquelicot Gilland

Coquelicot's work has evolved through her more than 20 years of experience of being a minister with the Association & Integration of the Whole Person (AIWP). To every session, Coquelicot brings her intuition and vast knowledge base. Then she gets out of the way to let something else arise; she makes room for a larger knowledge, and invites grace to enter. Coquelicot has a capacity for deep listening, listening beyond the limits of her personality and academic learning. By dropping and melting into something much larger than herself, she becomes simultaneously a student and a teacher, a facilitator and a catalyst. From there, she supports people to free themselves from the internal obstacles that block their innate ability to access this source directly.

Three Theories on Emotions

© 2009 Steen Joergensen
Robert Plutchik's psychoevolutionary theory on emotions.
Plutchik' has described a psychoevoutionary theory on emotions and their function based on many years of research. He operates with 8 basic emotions, see model below.

Stimulating event Cognition Emotional state Obvious behaviour Effect
New territory "examine" Expectation Map Knowledge of territory
Unexpected event "what is it?" Surprise Stop Gain time to
orient
Threat "danger" Fear Escape Safety
Obstacle "enemy" Anger Attack Destroy obstacle
Gain of valued "possess" Joy epeat Retain or repeat Gain resources
Loss of valued object „abandonment" Sadness Cry Reintegrate with lost object
Member of one's group "friend" Acceptance Groom Mutual support
Unpalatable object "poison" Disgust Vomit Eject poison

1. This text is primarily based on notes taken by Steen Joergensen at a lecture with Jens Hardy Soerensen (2008) and his chapter in Soerensen, Jens Hardy (ed.)(2006): Affektregulering i udvikling og psykoterapi. (Affectregulation in development and psychotherapy) Kobenhavn: Hans Reitzels Forlag, and Schore, Allan N. (2008): Paradigm Shift: The Right Brain and the Relational Unconscious. Psychologist-Psychoanalyst, summer 2008
2. In the latest version of the model Plutchik is mapping emotions and feelings in a nuanced system with 8 main emotional axis, inspired by Goethe's chromatology. The main emotions are found based on extensive factoranalysis of descriptions of emotional states.

The model below named "Key Element in the Emotion Sequence" is from Plutchik, Robert (2000): Emotions in the Practice of Psychotherapy. Clinical Implications of Affect Theories. Wahington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Related to work with loss and trauma it is interesting that Plutchik is desribing that the 8 basic emotions

are triggered by stimulating events,

are connected to a specific cognitive activity,

have a characteristic feeling state,

are connected to a specific and obvious kind of behaviour,

are supporting a specific goal for the individual.

This understanding is directly relevant in relation to processing loss and traumatic memories.

Panksepp's overview of emotions.
Panksepp has created the concept "affective neuroscience" in his field of research, dealing with mapping and describing "key neuroanatomical and neurochemical factors, contributing to the construction of basic emotions in the mammalian brain".

Panksepp is asserting the following connection between basic emotional systems and normal emotional processes:

Basic emotional system4 Emergant emotions
SEEKING (+ and -) Interest, frustration, need
PLEASURE ( + and -) Erotic feelings, jealousy
FEAR (-) Simple anxiety, worry, psychological trauma
RAGE (- and +) Anger, irritability, contempt, hatred
PLAY (+) Joy and delight, playful!
PANIC (-) Separation-despair, sadness, Guilt/shame, shyness, embarrassment
CARING (+) Upbringing, love, attraction
(DISGUST) (Disgust, revulsion)

3. Multiple emotional impacts contribute to each of the emerging emotions (jealousy will for example also have a touch of separation anxiety and anger). Plus and minus signs after each indicates overall types of affective value, which each system can probably generate. (Soerensen 2006, after Panksepp, 2000).
4. The different emotional systems are neural entities, not only psychological concepts. The essential neural components constitutes tendencies for actions, coordinating basic behavioural, physiological and psychological aspects of each emotional response. (Soerensen, 2006).
Soerensen (2006) has added DISGUST to this list. He goes through the systems referring to Le Doux and to Panksepp - and is using other references for DISGUST.

There is clearly a dominant similarity between Plutchik's psychoevolutionary model of emotions and the description Panksepp and others are giving of the neurological and neurochemical basis for the emotions.
The differences probably relate to the fact that Plutchik's and Panksepp's research has happened within very different domains: Plutchik is a psychologist and relates to psychological, phenomenological and factoranalytical data about emotions, whereas Panksepp is psychologist, neurologist and brainresearcher.

Schore's description of neurobiological aspects of the emotional development - related to early development of the right hemisphere."'.
Schore (2006)5 presents some of the newer research on the socioemotional development of small children and neurobiological research on the maturing of the earliest developed right hemisphere. This development has its culmination at the end of the second year of life, resulting in the maturation of a system for regulation in the right hemisphere.

According to Schore (2008, 2006) the right hemisphere is developed prior to the left. The right hemisphere, which is primarily active in implicit learning and emotional exchange and regulation in early childhood, is dominant in child development up until the age of two. Hereafter the left hemisphere, which is primarily involved in verbal, logical and rational exchange with the surroundings, becomes more dominant. This has led Schore (2008) to the notion that:

"in my first book I offered interdisciplinary evidence which indicated that the early maturing right brain represents the developing Freudian unconscious, the system that supports "the major sources of the primary forces that drive human emotion, cognition, and behavior" (Schore, 1994). In ongoing work I continue to provide both experimental and clinical evidence that the right hemisphere "implicit self" represents the biological substrate of the human unconscious".

In contrast to this the left hemisphere represents our cognitive and rational parts including what Freud called secundary processes (Schore, 2008).

Schore (2008) is a front figure among the researchers, who aim at combining psychoanlytical understanding with modern neurobiological research. He relates to Bowlby et.al.'s attachment theory and modern infant research by Stern, Tronic and Trevarthen. One of his most valuable contributions is the understanding of how interaction between mother and child is contributing to the develolpment of affectregulation in the child. This interaction in the attachment relationship happens primarily through attunement and exchange of nonverbal signals - and happens primarily implicitly and non-verbal.

Schore (ibid.) is stating that a verbal, cognitive approach to emotions and affect regulation only can provide us with an (important) control, whereas a deeper processing only can happen in a transference relationship, where new patterns in emotions and affect regulation can be stimulated in an attached exchange between client and therapist. The stimulation will happen through exchange and nonverbal relating in the therapeutic relationship.
Another way of saying this is, that cognitive (therapeutic) processing works through the left hemisphere and can modify experiences and behaviour, whereas a deeper processing of emotional and affectregulating patterns in the right hemisphere demands that contact and exchange is established between therapist and client on a relational level (verbally and primarily non-verbally).

You find a summary of Schore's viewpoints in his article (Schore, 2008).

5. The reference Schore (2006) is to articles by Schore, translated to danish and published in Soerensen (2006).
The psyhologist Robert Plutchik (1928-2006) has formulated a psychoevolutionary theory on emotions, being one of the most influential systems for classification of general emotional responses. He named 8 primary emotions - anger, fear, sadness, disgust, surprise, curiousity and joy. Plutchik suggested that these basic emotions are biologically primitive and that they are developed with the goal of making the species survive. Plutchik is suggesting, that these emotions are primary, by showing how they each trigger behaviour with high value for survival, like for example fear releasing the fight/flight reflex.

Jaak Panksepp is psychologist, psychobiologist and neuroscientist. He has created the concept "affective neuroscience", which is the name of the area of research studying neural mechanisms in emotions. This interdisciplinary area combines neuroscience with the psychological study of personality, emotions and moods.

Historically seen the study of cognition has neglected emotions and has focused on non-emotional processes (like memory, attention, awareness, perception, action, problemsolving and mental ideas). As a result of this, the study of the neurological basis for non-emotional and emotional processes have emerged as two separate areas: cognitive neuroscience and affective neuroscience. This distinction between non-emotional and emotional processes is today broadly looked upon as artificial, given that the two types os processes often involve overlapping neural and mental mechanisms.

Allan N Schore is named a "neuropsychoanalist". He is a clinical psyhologist and a leading researcher in neuropsychology. His work integrates developmental psychology and infant psychiatry with neuroscience aiming at describing models for normal and abnormal emotioal development. His activities covers theoretical work on early trauma impact on brain development, studies of the neurobiology of attachment and of borderline personality disorder (using modern neuroimagining), - biological studies of relational trauma in wild elephants, - and practising as a psychotherapist for more than 4 decades.

© 2009 Steen Joergensen

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Coquelicot teaches didactically, experientially and by example. She brings to each session a lifetime's worth of tools, exercises and practices that I use at home to further my own development. Her genius combines intuition, sensing and a comprehensive knowledge of human emotional and biological development. What I've learned from her has not only given me a deeper understanding of my own patterns, dynamics and behaviors, it's also enhanced my understanding of others. I am a far more compassionate person thanks Coquelicot. In fact to the degree that I am a more evolved being in any regard, Coquelicot was instrumental in my transformation.

-L. M. Artist and wellness ally

"Dear God:

Please untie the knots that are in my mind, my heart and my life. Remove the have nots, the can nots and the do nots that I have in my mind. Erase the will nots,
may nots,
might nots that may find a home in my heart.
Release me from the could nots, would nots and should nots that obstruct my life.
And most of all,
Dear God,
I ask that you remove from my mind,
my heart and my life, all of the 'am nots' that I have allowed to hold me back, especially the thought that I am not good enough. Amen."
- Author unknown, The Knots Prayer

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